the

a Little bit of ethology.

why do we fight each other live beings? The struggle is omnipresent in the nature of the process; ways of conduct designed to combat, and weapons, offensive and defensive.

As a rule, non-specialists, baffled by sensational stories the press and the cinema, imagine the relationship between the "wild beasts" in the jungle as a bloodthirsty struggle, all against all. Until recently there were movies in which, for example, you could see a Bengal tiger fighting with a Python, and immediately after then the Python with a crocodile. With full confidence we can say that in natural conditions this does not happen ever. And what's the point of one of these beasts to destroy the other? None of them are vital interests of another are not affected!

similarly, the formula Darwin's "struggle for existence" turned into a buzzword that is often misused, mistakenly attributed the uninitiated, as a rule, to the struggle between different species. In fact, "struggle", which was mentioned by Darwin, which drives evolution, is primarily competition between close relatives.

of Course, there are hostile clashes between different species. Owl at night, kills and eats even well-armed birds of prey, although they certainly are very seriously resist. On his part, if they meet the biggest owl in broad daylight, then attacked her, filled with hatred. Almost every any armed animal, from small rodents, furiously fights if he has no opportunity to escape. Apart from these special cases of interspecies struggle, there are other, less specific. Two birds of different species may fight over nesting cavities suitable for nest; any two animals are about equal in strength, can fight for food, etc.

the Function of preserving species is much clearer in any interspecies collisions than in the case of intraspecific struggle. The mutual influence of the predator and the victim gives remarkable examples of how selection causes one of them to adapt to the development of another. But this kind of "struggle" between eating and eating never leads to the complete destruction of the victim by the predator; they always set a balance, which – speaking of the species as a whole, is profitable for both. Who directly threatens the existence of species is not an "eater" and a competitor; it was he and only he. When in the old days in Australia appeared Dingo – first domesticated dogs introduced by humans and gone wild there – they did not destroy any of those that served as prey, but has exhausted the root of the large marsupial predators that hunted the same animals that they are. Local predators, the Tasmanian wolf and the Tasmanian devil, was much stronger than the Dingo, but in the hunting art of these ancient, relatively stupid and slow animals are inferior to "modern" mammals. Dingo is so reduced livestock production, hunting methods their competitors more "does not pay", so now they live only in Tasmania, where the Dingo is not reached.

equally Important is the area that should not be presented as the tenure. On the contrary, the area is determined only by the fact that the willingness of the animal to fight is highest in the most familiar place, namely in the center of his plot. In other words, the threshold of aggressiveness just below where the animal feels more confident, i.e. where the aggression is less likely suppressed the desire to escape. With the removal of this "headquarters" combat readiness decreases as soon as the situation becomes more strange and awe-inspiring. When defeated, takes flight, is interesting. For targeted – as it approaches its headquarters regains the courage and the Stalker, entering into enemy territory, loses courage. As a result, the fugitive suddenly turns around and – just as suddenly as energetically attacked the recent winner, which – as was to be expected – now hits and runs. All this is repeated several times, and in the end, the soldiers stop at a definite point of equilibrium where they only threaten each other but not attack[1].

Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded that the conflicts inherent nature and are essential to the formation and development of man. The conquest of living space, material goods, their preservation, care for themselves and offspring – embodied in the person. And what mechanisms (conscience, morality, intuition, cunning, physical strength) will use people to move competitors and keep a comfortable state, will depend on the person.

In an example of the kind of human behavior can result in the Taoist parable of "Supreme judge."

the Emperor of China met with Lao-Tzu and was so fascinated by them that appointed him Supreme judge. Lao Tzu tried to refuse the appointment, but in vain. Then he agreed and said,

— You will regret this appointment, as my way of understanding and vision are completely different from yours.

the Emperor had insisted, since he was confident in the extraordinary wisdom of this man. Lao Tzu took the place of the Supreme judge and the first thing he saw, was about a man that was caught on the crime scene of the theft in the house of the richest person. In fact, the case was not taken up as the thief was caught at the crime scene, and he confessed to the crime.

Lao Tzu gave him the famous sentence, so unique and full of understanding that never, neither before nor after no one carried such a sentence. He stated that the thief should be sent to jail for six months and the rich man also should be sent to prison for the same term.

Rich said:

I can't believe my ears! My money is stolen and I in jail? The same punishment as the thief. For what?

Lao Tzu said:

— You are the first thief, and he is second. But you should consider making a harsher punishment. You collected all the valuables of the capital in their coffers and made thousands of people hungry!

the Entire hall was silent. The rich man said:

— you May be right, but before you send me to jail, I want to see the Emperor.

after Meeting with the Emperor, he said:

— You put the Supreme judge of the man who condemned me. But remember, if I'm a thief, you are a bigger thief. You are exploiting the whole country. Dismiss this man, or he will declare you a thief.

the Emperor said:

— I Admit it's my fault, he warned me that his understanding is quite different from ours.

Lao Tzu was released from his duties, and the Emperor said to him:

You were right, forgive me.


[1] K. Lorenz Aggression (the so-called evil) / M: RIMIS, 2009. P. 53.



2014-07-04
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