the Concept of "personality" was coined by Italian psychologist R. Assagioli; it is a part of the personality that has certain attitudes, desires, needs. The most frequent and simple subpersonalities associated with certain social roles: daughter, wife, mother, employee and so on. Therapy subpersonalities has shown high efficiency in solving complicated therapeutic problems is can be working with trauma, self-sabotage, suicidal behavior, obsessive repetition, and more.
However, the assumption that our mind is sufficiently fragmented, is not the whole, were nominated Freud; part of this idea came from the division of mental apparatus into conscious, preconscious, unconscious, Ego, ID, Super-Ego.
Eric Bern, in turn, identified three so-called ego-state I-Parent I-Child I'm a Grown. Accordingly, each time a person either occupies the parent position and broadcasts the parent plant; or acts of communication in the role of the child (offended, cranky, etc.), or shows his Mature, grown-up side. This is a rather simplified model, but it is effective when the task is to improve relations with other people, to make communication more adequate and healthy.
Talking about "Altera" (alters) is, as a rule, in the case of dissociative manifestations, especially dissociative personality disorder. Obviously, the word is derived from the expression "alter ego", i.e. "alter ego". In fact, it is the same personality, but have lost the connection between them. When we switch from one role to another - for example, from the role of the mother of the child in the role of a friend - we realize that has remained the same person; the only change visible behavior, and sometimes mood. But these changes can never be too radical. In the case of dissociation integrity is lost: unable to endure a traumatic experience, the mind tries to keep him in isolation in a separate "capsule", Department of memory. Further, this mechanism may become habitual and traumatic material segregated from everything else. Formed or real memory loss, or a chronic feeling of unreality of what is happening.
"Alters" may occur a large number, depending on the degree of fragmentation of the psyche. However, modern Dutch psychotherapist Onno van der HART distinguishes two basic structures: "apparently normal part of the personality" and "outwardly, the affective part of the personality", VNL and SCARLET.
"For VNL characterized by a desire to participate in everyday life, do daily chores, that is a major role in the functioning of VNL playing system everyday life (research, care, affection, etc.), while VNL is avoiding traumatic memories. Operation SCARLET is quite rigidly determined by the system actions (protection, sexuality, etc.) or by the subsystems (sverdiolas, flight, fight), which was activated during trauma. VNL and AL is excessively rigid and to some extent isolated from each other". ("the ghosts of the past. Structural dissociation and the treatment of the effects of chronic psychological trauma")