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Communication is a subtle, multifaceted process of establishing and developing interpersonal contacts, due to the shared life of people and their relationships that develop on different occasions.

In social psychology in the structure of communication there are three of its immediate components:

communication, consisting in the exchange of information between people;

perceptual side, i.e. the process of mutual perception, the knowledge of the subjects of communication and on this basis the establishment between them of understanding;

interactive, which consists in the interaction, the joint action of the partners of communication.

the communicative aspect of communication. Under the communicative side of communication refers to the process of information exchange between people. This exchange is done using verbal and non-verbal means of communication.

Verbal communicationinvolves the use of speech with its rich phonetics, vocabulary and syntax. It is an essential tool for professional communication, a form of existence of language that operates directly manifested in it (10% words, 30% tone, melody, rhythm, 60% - non-verbal communication).

In a speech expressed the socio-psychological characteristics of a person, especially of his thinking, orientation, relationship to objective reality.

Greatly complement the verbal behaviour of the tools of non-verbal communication. To them, in particular, include: gestures, facial expressions, posture, spatial arrangement of the parties, rate of speech, pauses, crying, laughing, etc.

Among non-verbal means of communication is of particular importance eye contact (eye contact) between the partners. The opinion expressed attention, approval or disagreement, emotional state, the beginning or end of phrases.

an Important role is played by gestures, body language, enhancing, and sometimes a substitute for single words and phrases (index, describing the residual gestures).

a Significant role posture participants in the dialogue (how they sit, stand, move around while talking), their spatial position with respect to each other.

we should Not forget that around people communicating are formed spatial zones, outlines some of the invisible boundaries that must be respected depending on the particular communicative situation.

it is believed that secret zone is the space around the subject with a radius of about 45 cm in this space allowed people close, those who is a special trust.

Personal or personal area forms a space around the person with a radius from 45 to 120 cm. usually it is used during communication in a formal or in an informal setting with familiar people.

the wider the spatial sphere around the person is social area with a radius of from 120 to 400 cm it is most often observed when dealing with people we know little, during a business meeting in a formal setting, when receiving visitors.

And finally, common area from 4 meters And more observed during a speech in front of large groups of people.

the Perceptual aspect of communication. In the process obsheniyu its members there is an active mutual perception of the parties. The perception of the other person means the perception of its external features, their correlation with personal characteristics perceived individual and interpretation on this basis of his actions.

In the process of interpersonal perception are always present not only the idea of the other person, but view of himself, which, mutually enriching, helping to look at him, at myself as if through the prism of those images that always arise in the interaction with different people.

Correlating yourself with your partner, you begin to better understand his motives, actions, to more adequately respond to emotionally.

an Important role in the process of communication and understanding are such social psychological phenomena as: empathy, reflection, stereotyping, etc.

Empathy involves an emotional response, a kind of feeling that is going through the other person (the interviewee), a sympathetic attitude.

Reflection the process of realization by the individual of how he is perceived by the partner in communication. It is a reflection associated with the analysis of their own arguments and conclusions, something of this kind: "I think he thinks I think...etc". Ie content side of reflection is a thinking process, covering not only the course of his own thoughts, but the thoughts and ideas of his partner in communication.

Here you need to pay attention to the fact that, despite the fact that the dialogue involves two of the interlocutor, it is invisibly involved at least 6 participants:

1. The subject And what it is actually.

2. The subject And¢, And what he represents.

3. The subject And¢¢ how it perceives the partner in communication.

Similarly subject to B.

the Ideal seems to be the case when all three members from each side and appear to coincide in one person.

the Interactive aspect of communication. In the process of communication is organized interaction of people.

most clearly the process of such interaction can be seen using the so-called transaction analysis.

Transaction is a unit of communication. According to the theory of transactional analysis, each person in the process of communication in different situations regardless of age is one of the three conditional communicative roles or positions: Parent, Adult and Child.

the position of the Parent always contains a certain dominant relative to other positions, especially a Child, and is expressed in the obligation: "I Must!" The position of the Child, in contrast, assumes a subordinate role behavior, while retaining the right to Express only a desire: "I Want!" The position of the Adult can be expressed with the word, "Can!", combined with "I Want" and "Need!"

In social psychology describes the following main types of human interaction: is the relationship of cooperation and competition.

Relationship cooperation always assume the coordination of joint efforts, the involvement of all participants in the interaction process on the way to achieving this goal.

Relationship competition represent the conflict relationship type interaction of the participants pursuing different objectives. Conflicts are divided into destructive and productive.

Destructive conflict lead to the complete misalignment of cooperation, forming negative attitudes among their members with respect to each other.

productive with different purposes and positions, there remains a need to find mutually acceptable approaches and methods of conflict resolution.

2013-04-27
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