Differences of mourning from melancholy (the work of Freud's "Mourning and melancholia," 1917).


Freud in his work "Mourning and melancholia" differentiates between these two concepts, believing melancholy as a pathological condition, and grief is a normal affect. General in these terms –the lowered mood. The nature of the appearance of these disorders – in some cases, difficult circumstances, loss, in some cases – unknown. Sorrow always is a normal reaction of the subject due to the loss of the significant other, or object equivalent to the significant other, the emergence of melancholy are not necessarily tied to these events. Melancholy – a deep and heavy passion, including a clear violation of well-being, unwillingness to live.

Job loss during tribulation is that in connection with the loss of significant object, there is a need for the withdrawal of libidinal energy from him, in connection with which there is a reaction resistance, reluctance. Depending on the reaction force of resistance, can occur care of the subject from reality, violation of the testing that leads to psychotic manifestations. Then the subject of the dream of the object of their lust, at the completion of this work of mourning - the subject is freed.

In melancholia does not always have to be the loss of the object, the subject may not always know the cause of their suffering. Thus, the loss of the object when the tribulation is obvious, it is conscious, and in melancholia – in the space of the unconscious. Loss of interest in his surroundings while grief is due to the costs of resources to the work of mourning. In melancholia there is a "depletion of I", which is not in mourning. The melancholy subject is devastated, it's like he loses himself, refuses to meet their vital needs for sleep and food. After all, why sleep and eat, if it is not?

symptoms are as a result of internal mechanisms. In melancholia, involves Freud, the work of mourning has absorbed all the "I" of the subject, in consequence of which it was not, in a metaphorical sense. Presenting complaints and melancholic, does not feel shame or embarrassment, even he longs to share with other words about his time in a melancholy state, the word blaming others for what he has lost.

Melancholic dissociates itself into parts – one part is the "I" that Freud refers to as a "conscience," indicates the absence or badness of the second part, the main "I". That is, if sorrow is the loss of the beloved object, in melancholia the object becomes "me". The process of education melancholy we can assume the following – libido was directed to the object, but there was not the loss of him and disappointment in him. As a result, because of this upheaval, attachment to the object was destroyed. And libido, moved to "I" has become identified with the lost object, i.e. the loss of the object, the loss of "I". This imaginary other and try to destroy or at least maim melancholic in situations of suicide and autodestructive, in fact hurting himself.

References, for the formation of melancholia is a large fixation on the object and weak attachment to him. That is the melancholy in fact consists of sorrow and the process of regression from narcissistic object choice.

the Melancholy tends to undergo changes of personality subsequently occurs. But melancholy, like the coin has another side, and is able to turn in the opposite condition of mania characterized by elevated mood and tidal forces. The body had long been trapped in their own state, suddenly acquires new properties. Accumulating power, it now resembles a fountain or source from which the energy flows. "I" is released, the energy libido again able to select objects.

unlike the melancholy grief from the perspective of the topical differences of the systems is that in melancholia, the libido energy is circulating continuously, as if stuck between an object and "I". It's like the computer freezes due to bugs in the tribulation this does not happen. After "raspisanie" of the unconscious, the libido with the rejecting object returns to the "I", allowing the consciousness occurred, making the subject again able to love.

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