Teens...Adolescence...This topic is of concern to many. And not only parents, educators – that is, those people who are directly involved with children, deals with the problems of education and training, is responsible for them. Every one of us – adult was once a teenager and in memory still fresh memories about it – such a difficult period of our lives. Teenage reference groups is also the focus of considerable concern to social services, a target of criticism and discontent of the General population. And this is understandable. Teenage group cause us anxiety, excitement, sometimes even outrage. Every violation of the norms of behavior, different types of risky behavior, sometimes destructive... Yes, it's all about them – about teenagers.
So who are they, teenagers? And what happens to a person during this period? Why all of a sudden obedient, domestic child, the younger boy suddenly turns into an uncontrollable monster - starts to be rude, impertinent, his mood changes very often and abruptly – he is depressed, then suddenly euphoric, it's impossible to agree about anything, says no to everything, revolt? What all this could get him in the future? When will it end and will it ever end? And, most importantly, what to do about parents? These and many other questions trouble many of those who in one way or another in contact with people who are in such a difficult period of his life, which without exaggeration can be called dramatic, those who by fate is meant to help these people to avoid irreparable tragedy in his life.
One of the most striking manifestations of podrostkovoy is the desire for risky behavior.The term "risky behavior" means a behavior that can lead to the loss of health and social well-being to infection, mental or physical dependence, violence, suicide.
Risky behavior can be of two types:
- destructive (drugs, alcohol, promiscuous sex, unsafe sex, crimes of various kinds, etc.)
- constructive ways of realizing the desire of risk (extreme sports service in "hot spots", work in MES)
Option risky behavior – victimization - is this behavior the result of which increases the likelihood of turning a person into a victim of a crime, circumstances or accident.
Multiple references to the problem of risky behaviour indicates the absence of a single, coherent approach to its solution, the presence of understudied aspects of the desired phenomenon. After analyzing a lot of materials and literature on this subject, I found that the approaches that explain the causes of risky behaviour, dominated by 5:
the Biological conditionality of reasons
Violations in the spiritual sphere.
a Psychological approach. Disturbances in psycho-emotional sphere
the Psychoanalytic approach to the explanation of risky behaviour from the point of view of features of human development.
In this article I'll give a quick overview of the first four. And the fifth - psychoanalytic - approach, I would like to focus more detail in a separate publication, since it was he who, from my point of view, explains the most underlying mechanisms of the human psyche, studying patterns of development and, most importantly, gives realistic ways to overcome difficulties in development, problem solving, and helps to prevent many tragedies.
the First biological approach is widespread in Western and American culture. Neurobiology Russell Poljak (Russell Poldrack), along with other researchers have taken the first step towards the identification of brain areas responsible for this special behavior of adolescents. American scientists have found that dangerous behavior in adolescents is associated with excessive development of the brain. The researchers attempted to find the relationship of risky behavior of teenagers with the level of development of the white matter of the brain. The white substance is formed by processes of nerve cells that connect areas of the cerebral cortex. In the process of growing white matter becomes more dense and organized. The study revealed that risky behavior often observed in those adolescents, white matter of the brain which was more organized and Mature. In addition, the researchers found no significant differences in the degree of brain development of boys and girls, different dangerous behavior.
According to the head of research Professor Gregory burns (Gregory Berns), further research is necessary in order to establish the causes of the earlier brain development teenagers risky behavior or risky behavior contributes to the development of white matter.
In our country when considering the causes of risky behavior in adolescents researchers more focused not on biological but on the social-pedagogical, psychological causes and the reasons that caused the violations in the sphere of spiritual and moral values in the family and modern society as a whole.
To socio-due to pedagogical reasons can be attributed to:
- lack of awareness among adolescents about the consequences of risky
- the low social status of the family of a teenager
- the influx of unsafe information in the media
- the easy availability of alcohol and drugs for Teens, etc.
- parent family the lack of the necessary social support.
- extremely youthful age of parents
- educational neglect
Factors associated with mental characteristics of parents that affect the emotional development of the child.
- Hyper mother, based on anxiety and the feeling of loneliness leading to the formation of the child's insecurity in their abilities, anxiety, and inadequate assessment of what is happening;
- nervous breakdowns in the form of shouting, physical punishment, abuse, countless comments and criticism, compensating the tension of the parents, their dissatisfaction with their lives;
the psychopathology of the parents (V. Steele), leading to distortion of interpersonal interactions, psychological ill, and often the physical abuse of children;
- emotional disorders the family organization: the affectivity that lead to comatosely in the house and the extraordinary feeling of guilt; anxiety in the relationship that binds children; lack of emotional responsiveness, deprimirotuyu the psyche of the child;
- certain personal characteristics of mothers (depression, low self-esteem, self-sacrifice, narcissism, impulsivity, instability identification), which through the mechanism of identification lead to the formation of the distinctive style of personal reaction of the child.
the Opinion of the researchers that Sabrosa seems to me more realistic. While this approach gives more hope to what to prevent the tragedy of rebenka - teen - the future of the adult - in our power.