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Early, hard and integrated super-ego, the Execution of Isolation and Discipline according to Michel Foucault.


According to M. Foucault, there are three practices of Power in relation to the population, the law against the crime of health in relation to diseases that determine how the relationship to a Different. These practices are the following: Public execution (the destruction of the Other), localization and confinement (the isolation of the Other), Discipline (correction Other orthopedics). They correspond to the three ways vnutripsihicheskoy suppress the Early (sadistic) Super-ego, Rigid Super-ego, Mature (integrated Super-ego). the
Authorities Phylogeny repeats ontogeny of personality in terms of the development of the ego structures.
1. Public execution (early Super-Ego)
"so, the public execution takes the legal-political function. She is a ceremonial by which recovering for a moment, broken the power of the sovereign. Restored by manifestations of it in all its splendor. Public execution, however hasty and everyday it was, refers to a number of lush rituals of restoring power after a temporary decline following the crime, humiliating the sovereign, death deploys in front of his invincible power. Her goal is not only to restore the balance, how much to enter the game as her climax asymmetry between the subject who dared to violate the law, and the Almighty Emperor, demonstrating his power. Although the damages caused by an offence by a private person, must be proportionate, although the sentence must be fair, the sentence shall be such as to demonstrate a measure, and the lack of balance and excess. The practice of public executions is not based on economy of punishment (the punishment should be exactly that, to turn away from crime - O. V.), and the politics of intimidation - through the body of the offender all need to feel unrestrained presence of the sovereign." King, appearing occasionally in the form of a punitive body of a psychopath with power as if nationwide discovers a field of iniquity. His appearance is terrible, but it happens not so often. Of course we have in mind an analogy with the action of the early super-ego or predecessor of the sadistic super-ego, which is busting through the landscape of the unconscious, smashing right and left, but then leaves our unconscious alone in its original and "vicious". Early super-ego is practically meaningless, empty. It is not a repository of rules, values, principles, but a pure act of violence, grasped not in terms of structure but in terms of process. It punishes sadistically without installing punishment order, not harnessing and trying to destroy the offender (attraction). If you try to deal with the attacks of the early super-ego what it wants that wants to adopt, they soon discover that it punishes the completely opposite thing without having within themselves the desirable course of action. Its symptoms are excessive, bright, revealing. Early super-ego punishes the individual if for the future, ahead of time for the period of his absence. It seems that it wants to punish, to cause to freeze, to give up altogether from any activity and life. Attempts to establish the authorship intraeconomic messages, to understand why this is considered good, and it's a terrible, also unsuccessful. It's like snatches of conversation heard from the TV used as an excuse for rage.
2. Insulation/rigid super-ego.
According to Foucault institution, inside of which was formed following the practice of Power in relation to Another became a leper colony ("the History of madness in the classical age" and "Birth of the clinic") . The leper colony is a perfect model of isolation, leprosy is a perfect reason to explain how those who are inside and those who are outside - why the need for separation and fencing. Now power is not chaotic, they have a specific purpose and the principle. Over time, a leper colony was deserted, but the practice was the isolation of know-how, which determine the form of the existence of such institutions as mental hospital, jail (prison), the alms-house. The desire to define a clear criterion for isolation was the driving force behind "objective" chelovekovedenija Sciences, such as law and psychiatry. Need signs of madness, social weakness, bad parenting, which leads to crime. These signs had to be clear and undoubted, because on the basis of these characteristics in the society decide which of its members it can affect rights. Imprisonment as penalty has long been a public psychiatric hospital (Bedlam Salpetriere), prisons were used as circuses, theatres, - anyone for a fee (which was used to keep crazy prisoners) could take a look at the examples of survivors of mind and moral monsters who have committed crimes. New leper colony was used not only for entertainment but also edification.
an example of the exclusion fencing on the intrapersonal level are the cases where people are divided into different "mental" territories - the territory right, normal, acceptable and territory condemn, strange, disgusting. It is natural that in internal mental ghetto in addition to murderers and robbers get such characters as the eccentric, a woman of easy virtue, a carefree hobo, a free philosopher . It is easy to understand under the hot hand fall needs spontaneity, study, unbridled joy, free sexuality. Man with a rigid Super-Ego must be constantly and publicly proclaim the principles to condemn unacceptable form of conduct, separate from the residents of the ghetto, but he must observe these residents, "have them in mind" not to accidentally turn into one of them. He is forced to regularly reproduce their creed in order to obtain the right to be here among the "free" citizens, and not in a hospital or prison.
3. Discipline (integrated super-ego)
the Next move in the evolution of the super-ego and next the technique of power was the integration and Discipline. The inhabitants of asylums, prisons, hospitals became interested in desevedavy different directions not only from the point of view of their incurable ugliness, but also from the point of view of the ability to correct, return to their homes and families, and to be more precise - to their jobs in factories and fields. A body of science has attended not only by classification to separate, but the invention of techniques of change (treatment) deviated from the norm of the individual. The society stepped into a psycho.hospitals and prisons. But the spirit of the conclusion of the over in the society in the form of the statutes of monasteries and schools, army drill, the Guild discipline.
Discipline, according to Foucault, in contrast to Punishment and Isolation, operates quietly, almost imperceptibly, quietly, consistently. The power of discipline it is not chaotic and the excessive power of the king (which, incidentally, has the right to forgive at the last moment and sentenced to death), not the conclusion of otherness, but rather police supervision, mutual informing in order to "fix", "adjust" the lost soul. Mature super-ego or the integrated super-ego - finds himself inside the unconscious becomes the parenchyma, the connective tissue between impulses (the"senior Guild is chosen from among the exemplary workers, his task is to walk between the rows of machines and to notice the drunks and lazy, to assess the productivity of each"); now desire can frolic on the lawn under the supervision of someone watching them from home, but to be characters of the tragedy, heroes in the Greek sense they can not. Instead the rules become effective persuasion - external control is transformed into a soft and omnipresent self-control. In fact, desire to lose their neproizvol, but thanks to this we get the internal proportionality of punishment to offense and the lack of attacks of acute destructive shame. Historically, the penalty is no longer needed, because you start to exist in prisons, schools, institutions, psychiatric hospitals, where they can be identified options deviations from the norm (physical, legal, intellectual) and taken some action ("exercises") that bring an individual to the usual indicators. However, destroying the randomness, we deny the existence of spontaneity. Abandoning the passions, immersed in the normality.
Foucault also writes about the fact that all of science with the prefix "psycho" study of identity, but in order to put individuality on a pedestal, but in order to find in man something "sick child,-a clever criminal" and then straighten it using special procedures. This is a really serious claim to the humanistic pathos of the psycho-Sciences. Dealing with the patient, we should keep in my mind the question: What is my purpose - to ease suffering, promote the "finding yourself"or take care of Discipline, the correction of the deviation? And, apparently, a large part of the suffering associated not with direct experience of mental pain from the symptom, but with the experience of himself as abnormal, subjected to stigma and some parts are strange and in need of a speedy deletion. Probably on the level of a client request are three modes of operation super-ego and forms of exercising power over the internal contents sound like: 1. To get rid of something (to throw out of my life) 2. To gain control over something (to put it in the inner ghettos) 3. To understand something, (to improve awareness). The phrase "to better understand their needs" could be translated as to see their needs, to make visible the mechanics of his inner life, to invite the observer to legitimize our desire or time warned them of deviation. As we understand it, we are hardly talking about the desire for freedom and choice. Knowledge in this case, according to Foucault, is just one of procedure of the government.

Oleg of Vladimir
2018-05-13
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