self-Determination is a complex phenomenon directly related to the choice of their life. In the most General form it can be defined as the willingness of the person to consciously and independently to plan and implement its development perspectives.
the Central point position E. Erickson is the idea of epigenesis (the deployment process) the vital powers of man. The development is seen from the point of view of its accompanying internal and external conflicts, the resolution of which entails the strengthening of a person's ability to make decisions based on "private standards and the standards of important people for him".
Basic education epigenetic psychosocial development is identity, the core of which is draws up in the period of adolescence ego-identity.
Ego-identity – the underlying mechanism of personal integrity, which is defined by Erikson: "the Sense of ego-identity is the belief that their ability to maintain the identity and continuity to the identity and continuity of the values and image, which I call the others."
Analysis of the notion of ego-identity given by the American psychologist N. With Leites . He identified the following aspects of ego-identity:
- feeling "separate" from others;
- sense of quality, that is, the understanding of objects and phenomena of the surrounding world, people and relations between them;
- feeling different from others, which is associated with a sense of their own identity;
- a sense of permanence, which involves feeling a person temporarily in the future;
- sense of integrity associated with the complex feelings as a whole;
- sense of coherence, which concerns the internal elements of what is perceived as a psychological integrity;
- the impact of ideas about themselves on a sense of selfhood;
- desire to both constancy and variability.
Ego-identity, is defined in the concept of Erikson's sense and belongs to the subjective world of man.
Psychosocial identity reflects the interaction of the individual with the outside world, identification with the environment, determination of their own social significance through the acceptance or rejection of proposed roles.
Thus, Erikson, on the one hand, considers identity as a process occurring within the individual and which constitutes its inner essence, and with another - as a process, which is the harmony of personal experiences and external events.
Erikson identifies eight stages of development, calling them crises of development. At each stage, the choice between positive and negative resolution of the underlying conflict, the outcome of which is determined by the strength of the ego (it is influenced by the success of solving age problems on the previous stages and social environment at this stage). In the correlation of this concept with the tradition of Russian psychology it is seen that the solution to the age problem in the concept of Erickson is more likely a result of a gradual development during the relevant period (which may be called sensitive). The determining factor in the development process is the interaction of personal experience and social factors.
the First four stages of development according to Erickson correlated with the selected Freud's oral, anal, phallic and latent periods, the subsequent three stages are new in the psychoanalytic paradigm. The sequence is as follows:
Oral stage , It provides the Foundation for basic trust or basic mistrust. At this stage, the child more helpless than ever in my life, to meet their needs he needs other people. If he is surrounded by caring, loving and supportive adults, the child will view the world from a position of trust, if he gets in terms of rigid deprivation, it will be distrustful.
Anal stage within its framework, develop independence, but if the period of toilet training the child is faced with constant punishment, it provides the basis for the development of indecision and shame. Instead of learning to rely on another (inner strength to make decisions), harshly punish, the child doubts his or her ability to act successfully and independently.
Phallic stage- period of the formation of initiative. Freud this phase is related to the necessity of overcoming the Oedipus complex. If at this stage the child is exposed to severe punishment, instead the effective resolution of the problem of rejection of the pregenital attachment to parents lays the Foundation of responsibility, he will experience feelings of shame and guilt.
Latent stage is the period of formation of such qualities as skill, competence. Failure in solving age problem at this stage is associated with the formation of feelings of inferiority (if the child is feeling the continued inadequacy of their actions.)
stage of psychosexual moratorium means the formation of identity or role confusion. The successful development leads to the formation of a clear ego identity, a failed development leads to a scattered, unstable feeling.
sixth step (Erickson gave special names to the last three of them) is made a basic choice between intimacy and solitude, isolation. During this period, the person should move in the direction of intimacy. This requires confidence in their identity in order to be able to open up to another person, and not to defend the Foundation of their uniqueness.
the Seventh stage associated with generationally or its opposite, stagnation.
Eighth, the final stage marks the attainment of integration of the ego (as the adoption of its own life in its uniqueness and originality) in the case of successful development. Unsuccessful development leads to the formation of a sense of despair from consciousness of nastynasty reason life lived, and that to correct them is not much time.
Psychological security, confidence in themselves with ensured the possibility of positive identifiable with significant others. Particularly large dependence of the environment on the first stage of development.
during the deployment of the vital forces of the person he is becoming greater stability, independence from external influences and are increasingly able actively and independently to build their lives (and to choose their environment).
Positive solution to an age allows a person to become strong enough to at the end of life to accept yourself in the fullness of manifestation. However, a negative decision (although the person remains the ability to change a negative outcome in the later stages) puts the person into a dependence not only on social conditions but on a life lived.
In the concept of Erikson's life cycle or the epigenesis of identity is a deployment of vital forces of the person in accordance with a definite plan.