Envy - the ancient sense of that throughout the history of mankind was his constant companion.
the Global spread of this feeling is especially shocking when you analyze the field of the collective unconscious.
Perhaps the first mention of jealousy we find in the old Testament, in the scene where, filled with jealousy, Cain kills his younger brother Abel. The Bible tells us that Abel was a herdsman and Cain a farmer. One day the brothers brought a sacrifice to God. Abel offered on the altar of sacrifice, a slaughtered lamb, and Cain the fruit grown on earth. However, the Lord chose to sacrifice his younger brother. Cain fell into a trance. Left brother alone in the field, he kills Abel.
Now let us turn our research attention toward Greek mythology.
the Famous myth of Cupid and psyche tells us that in a beautiful country lived a family with three daughters. The girls were pretty, but the youngest Psyche, excelled by not only their beauty, but the goddess of love Aphrodite. The goddess commanded her son Cupid to punish psyche, depriving her of love. Cupid went to execute the order of his mother, but only seeing a young girl, without memory fell in love with her, forgetting about the terrible order.
Soon the older sister psyche got married, and only she remained single. Then the parents, obeying the mysterious advice of the Oracle, and put the daughter in her wedding dress and taken to a high mountain, where he had left her alone. Soon a strong wind blew which lifted psyche and carried her to a beautiful castle. In the wind turned the God Cupid, who in the mystery of the mother of Aphrodite moved lover to her castle and came to her only at night, when darkness hid his features. Cupid took psyche the only promise: it will never attempt to see his face and learn who he is.
it went on for a while, as long as Psyche, missed the sisters begged Cupid to invite them to the castle. The young God agreed.
Older sisters, once inside the castle, gazed with envy on the decoration. Sister psyche asked to tell who the man her husband. Alas, the young beauty that was known as her husband's face is always concealed in the veil of night. The jealous sisters persuaded psyche to look at what a man comes to her the rights of a spouse. Maybe it's an evil demon or monster?
And the beauty accepted, devoured with curiosity and anxiety. Night, when Cupid slept in their marriage bed, Psyche lit the candle to his face.
Enthusiastically gasp, she realized that her husband - the beautiful God Cupid. But all of a sudden drop of wax that has slipped from a guttering candle, fell on the shoulder of Cupid and woke him up. A young God with dismay saw that Psyche had not fulfilled the main condition - not to try to find out who comes to her at night.
Sorry Cupid explained the psyche that can no longer remain with her and hurriedly left the castle. Psyche was left alone, terrified of what he's done.
I deliberately cite here only a part of the myth, showing what cruel joke played with the psyche envy older sisters.
By the way, Greek mythology, generously odarivka us the gems of his legacy, the myth contains a separate dedicated personified envy.
so, according to the legend, the Envy was the daughter of the Titan Pallanta and the oceanid Styx. Her sister was herself the nickname, the crowned goddess of victory. In this circumstance lies a deep symbolism, for envy always pursues the winners.
the Bad sister Nicky resembled a hunched old woman with unkempt mane of gray hair. Envy had rotting teeth, which often exposed in his evil smile. She lived in a gloomy cave, where no animals wandered and never flew songbirds. The damp floor of the cave was covered with the rotting remains of snakes, the only food that did not disdain envy.
the old Woman was happy only when he learned of the misfortunes that befell the Greeks. But even in her sleep she did not know the rest, because it was terribly hungry feeling, whose name she bore.
However, in the modern world, jealousy has many forms of manifestations. The infamous beauty, doused with sulfuric acid because of the jealousy of rivals, poisonous comments under the photos and articles about successful people, the elimination of more successful rivals at work and in business, and much more.
As you can see, the illustration shows us the devastating and destructive aspect of envy. However, jealousy, like any other sense, has a dual nature.
for Example, sadness in a positive aspect can be light, inspirational and inspiring. In its negative aspect of sadness depletes human, depriving of strength and energy. Or rage is senseless and destructive, but can be and noble, pushing a soldier to defend the country from invaders and occupiers.
the same is true for envy. In this sense contains a huge potential of energy that people can use for self-improvement and to achieve what he has yet.
Jealousy can be considered a hidden rivalry, but if the enemy suspects that we compete with him.
it is Useful to use the positive potential of envy, pushing us to new challenges.
an Interesting look at the nature of envy introduced psychoanalysis.
Freud and penis envy.
the Concept of penis envy is one of the key in classical psychoanalysis. Dr. Freud believed that the girl detects a difference between the sexes around the age of eighteen months to two years. The genitals of the boy, other than her own, gives girls a sense of inferiority and inferiority. She believes she was deprived of the penis (neutered) or as a punishment for some offense, or because of the deceit of the mother.
the penis Envy is also evident in the behavior of an adult woman when she tries, figuratively speaking, to seize the penis, to appropriate it, identificeres with a man. For example, it is expressed in aspiration to social advancement, career growth and power. These successes, so become the equivalent of "symbol of power", which the woman denied.
the Largest contribution to the study of envy has invested Melanie Klein, British psychoanalyst.
Klein studied the mental characteristics of infants and very young children. As a result, she received interesting evidence that one of the first feelings that a child feels is envy.
In particular, the infant is not yet able to perceive the mother as a whole object. In his mind it is reflected as a partial object (breast). It is in the mother's breast contains everything that you need baby milk, love. In this connection, he begins to feel envy to my breast, which is what he is deprived. With the advent of teeth the baby begins to Express her jealousy bites the mother's breast. And this is one of the Central features of envy to spoil the object of love.
If successful the transition from the paranoid-schizoid position to the depressive, the child is born a new sense of gratitude.
a Few words about narcissism.
though the feeling of envy in one degree or another is inherent in all people, however, it is in narcissicism organized individuals it is most pronounced.
according to renowned psychoanalyst Nancy McWilliams, people whose identity is organized around the maintenance of self-esteem by obtaining confirmation from the parties are narcissistic.
Narcissistic personality is formed in childhood when parents do not perceive their child as he is, reminding him that he needs to be what they want to see him. Fear of losing parental love, for the sake of the requirements of the child creates a false self. Its true (missed) I deeply hidden in the most secret corners of the soul, remaining undeveloped.
the Basic feelings of narcissistic shame, inner emptiness and envy. Many of them (especially alpha-Narcissus) vain, ambitious and focused on success and achievement.
the trappings of success: a luxurious mansion, expensive car, etc. are designed to compensate for strong feelings of inferiority the narcissist. Usually their envy is directed at more successful people and those who sincerely enjoys life, able to love and to be yourself. In addition, envy daffodils are often excessive and hassling them day and night.
In our society, envy is one of the most condemn, and even taboo feelings. Many of us believe that "envy is a shame." So where are these installed?
Many parents tell their children, seeing they have the signs of jealousy is a bad feeling shameful. Good people, say, not jealous. As a result of the child are formed misconceptions about envy. The child, like a sponge, absorbs the parent introject, but they, of course, does not relieve him from the "shameful feelings".
Parents don't explain that envy objectively natural sense, which sooner or later attends even the best representatives of the people. The right to teach the child to accept their envy and be able to use its potential for their development.
Envy is a very ambiguous feeling. Often it is devastating for both the object and subject of envy. However, and in this sense it is useful to see the positive content. Since the origins of envy are in some kind of failure and the realization that the other has desired good for us, so far as envy releases the impulse that stimulates us to self-improvement and reaching new heights.