On the psychological impact of information quite a lot and this article aims not so much her next retelling, but an attempt of systematization. The article is purely theoretical. Applied things related to the subject you plan to describe later. For them, the article will be the theoretical basis to just once not have to re-negotiate what it is and you could always ask for hints.
so, to start, of course with definitions.
the Effect is an active action of the subject on the object. Not necessarily explicit or feedback. Thus on the impact we can speak when we are talking about subject-object relations, when at least one of the partners of interaction is an extension on the top and regarded the second side of the object, which turns out to be any impact. And since we are talking about psychological impacts, and the impact on mental phenomena, primarily on the behavior and activities of the object.
Psychological impact is an action of the subject, aimed at changing the behavior and activities of object interaction.
to Give a moral evaluation of the phenomena of reality — not the task of the psychologist. Therefore, the question about the ethics of psychological impact on the people we lower, recognizing however, that the subject-subject communication is more comprehensive in nature. But just recognizing the fact that there are situations where the subject-object relationship is not so much desirable as inevitable. This and some pedagogical situations and professional attitude in activities where implied a clear hierarchy of power and even in a situation of psychological assistance, for example when working with acute stress reaction when the psychologist can use some technology policy work. But the technology we will leave alone, but the methods will try to organize it. Thus, the main most well-known methods of psychological influence can be arranged in pairs on a shared basis.
the First pair of the level of power of the subject of impact forms the opposition
manipulation — pressure
If the subject has a smaller (or insufficient) power is trying to influence an object having a higher (or sufficient) power, he resorted to manipulation (a vivid example, the child manipulates parents are equal partners manipulate each other, their power over the will of each other is insufficient to direct pressure)
Psychological manipulation — this method of influence on the human psyche through setting it in the uncomfortable position of choosing between two or more alternatives.
Can put the object in a situation of choice between the following alternatives:
the pleasant and the unpleasant;
pleasant and more enjoyable.
unpleasant and more unpleasant.
pleasant and neutral;
unpleasant, and neutral;
Thus, the behavior sought by the manipulator should be perceived in the consciousness of the object the winning of two or more alternatives.
a special case is the manipulation of "illusion of choice", in which the object is offered to choose of two alternatives equally acceptable for the subject. For example, the subject needs the object set down and he addresses him with the phrase creates the illusion of choice: "you prefer to sit on the couch or in a chair?"
In contrast to manipulation, a person having a higher (or sufficient) authority over the object of influence, has the ability to resort to psychological pressure and does not need to manipulate.
Psychological pressure — the impact on the human psyche through the deprivation of his choice and forced the only possible option.
Psychological pressure is essentially the order. Used in army, government and management, in the process of mobbing and psychological terror Is the method underlying the autocratic leadership style.
Let's look at a few in comparisonParameters sravnivaya manipulatsioonidele pressureFeatures: Obrazotvorche, композиционностьПредставительность, positionsarticle, rastitelnosti, intensivverdsavdelning, dvusmyslennostei, overidealization, sbalansirovannoe, balanceFeature Clever, decisive, double-digit, ambiguous, equilibrium, balanced impact on the psyche.Personable, impressive, strong, intense, been for the helping, Yes, sustainable, stable impact.Toolto put the human in an uncomfortable situation forced subordinative forced action, lack of selection, placement on the social hierarchy below them.
the Second pair of divided to influence the patterns of behavior and thinking in object interactions and forms the opposition
Attack — Programming .
to destroy old patterns of behaviour and patterns of thinking used psychological attack with the goal to create a new psychological programming.
Psychological impact of the attack aimed at disabling logical thinking and the destruction of stereotypes of behavior.
Is to create a situation of uncertainty, the deliberate destruction of the logic of developments to circumvent stereotypical response.
Psychological programming - effects aimed at the creation of algorithms of intelligence and the formation of patterns of behavior.
This situation is creating new behaviors and thinking in new situations or in a situation of destruction of the old behaviors in familiar situations.
Consider the differences.Options sravnivaya takapihalle programmingFeatures: Evrazresourse, isonipecotamide, konstantsaliyata, activestates, nastygirlschannel, mnogonatsionaljnostj, animalsasleaders, pantomimically, the inertia of theFeature is Varied, changeable, quick, active, wordy, ambiguous, moving, pantomime, the impact on psychicoverdose,monotonous, precise, persistent, unique, orderly, unambiguous, inert, stable not impact the psycheToolto Break down stereotypes of behavior and thinking, off logicalantennae algorithms of behavior and thinking, the formation of a pattern of behavior
the Third pair of methods that impact the same way (exposure through the teaching of the vicar) and various impacts are divided into the opposition
Contagion - imitation
Infection is a direct transmission of emotional States, while imitation is the transmission of the behavioral pattern or the pattern.
Psychological contagion is a method of psychological impact through the transfer of emotional States from subject to object interaction.
Psychological imitation is a method of psychological impact through the transfer of behavioral patterns from subject to object interaction.
Let's compare:Parameters sravnivaesh surgeryeconomics imitationFeatures: Brasilpornotv, eccritotarsus, sonetlinenodefect, teatralizovannoe, dostoinstvami ameliorative povertyalleviation papademetrakopoulos, sustainabilityFeature Expressive, wild, spontaneous, affective impact on the psyche.A confident, rational, thoughtful, structured impact on the psyche.ToolDirect transfer of affect from person to person or group sudanericana transfer model of successful behavior and myshlenii fourth pair of criticality of perception of the recipient (object impact) is divided into the opposition
suggestion is a conviction.
About the suggestion, when beliefs are translated object over his critics and the critics, either emotional, or by using suggestive techniques.
the urge to say when you mean appeal to the human mind, his logic and of critical thinking.
nesenie is a method of psychological impact on human consciousness in which there is an uncritical perception of beliefs and attitudes.Belief is the psychological impact based on facts, in order to build in the mind of the recipient a chain of logical connected in the judgments
Let's compare:Parameters sravanabelagolaFeatures: Abrasional ukrainianchinese wsusinstallationdrive, monotonicity logically trainingbased positive emotional otklikalsya positive rational brisbaneinternational stability, umirotvorennosti stability, confidence.Feature Repetitive, monotonous, peaceful, emotionally compelling impact on psikhologicheskii built, correct, consistent, coherent, rationally attractive impact.Toolthe Perception of attitudes and beliefs to bypass criticalerror rational facts, minds, opinions and beliefs.
In the real interaction between people usually use a combination of methods obstacle.: Attack + pressure Pressure + programming, Manipulation + suggestion and so on.
read More about the psychological impact will discuss in other articles.
Interesting would be feedback in the form of specific examples illustrating certain methods of psychological influence. So you will understand how the material fit for absorption.
Shadow psychology - M.: publishing house "Eksmo", 2003