the

Psychological support is a multidimensional concept that includes the diversity of psychological theories and practices, ranging from the various options the Advisory conversation, to diverse psycho-individual and group work with clients. Fundamentally important is the fact that psychological assistance always carries and psychotherapeutic dimension, without which a living tissue of relations of the counselor and his client could easily be destroyed, and itself psychological help – to become either a barren moralism, or the mechanical application of "techniques".

unfortunately, currently training psychologists as consultants, and often – and psychotherapists usually biased od "spirit" to the "letter" of the expert, and does not account for the deep methodological and philosophical foundations. In practice, this manifests itself overvalued against the psychologist to the results of psychodiagnostic examination of the client, "interpretive itch," excessive saturation of the technological process of assistance and several other "professional" action, which disappears reflection goals help, but by and large the client as such.

What might help philosophy is the specialist providing consultative or psychotherapy?

first, the philosophy involves a holistic view of human nature and the reality in which he lives. Second, the philosophical tradition is a kind of basic structure that defines the very meaning of care. And finally, thirdly, the psychology as such originated in the context of philosophical thought, and a violation of this continuity might lead to a kind of "handicraft" of psychology.

the Concept of a philosophical vision, which may rely on a psychologist, can help to avoid the emergence of diverse modern "psychotherapies", often differing only in the names. At the same time a philosophical approach to the human essence not only enriches the worldview of the psychologist, but also increases the sensitivity of his thinking, organizes the logic of psychological assistance.

of Course, in relation to the problems of psychological assistance it is not about the philosophical view of human nature (most likely, it is impossible in principle), but the look paradigm . Historically, psychology has been at the crossroads of two paradigms – the Sciences and the Humanities. At the same time, for solution of tasks of psychological assistance preferred orientation on the humanitarian paradigm approach. This is due to at least two reasons. First, is the presence of subjective aspects of human experience, not derived from biological nature. And, secondly, reflexivity and arbitrary human activity that determines newsinessence motives and environmental conditions, including social ones.

of Course, the psychologist-consultant should be guided in matters of anatomy and physiology of the Central nervous system, normal and abnormal development, the pathogenesis and psychopathology and other disciplines that defines the professional level of training. But at the same time you should also consider that not all the phenomena of mental life directly derive from processes occurring in the brain of the individual or in his social environment. Reductionism – the reduction of complex phenomena to a simple explanation - is one of the serious problems generated by the natural-science paradigm applied to the spiritual life of man. When the psychologist brought up solely in the spirit of deterministic views, is faced with the apparent contradiction between their knowledge and experience of the client, he begins to look for answers in the areas that follow a deterministic logic but do not have any relation to psychology, nor the natural Sciences - extrasensory perception, parapsychology, astrology, paganism and the occult.

Perhaps the most fully expressed the philosophical essence of psychological assistance to the founder of phenomenological theories of personality and client-centered approach in psychotherapy, Carl Rogers. He argued that the appointment of a psychologist (therapist) with the client (patient) must first be considered as an existential meeting between two people. Accordingly, the success of aid is largely determined by the quality of this meeting. Continuing this thought, it should be noted that the art expert is not an art of techniques or interpretations, but primarily the creation of conditions for realizing the potential of the client, and the main tool of work is the identity of the consultant (therapist). Postulating the importance of contact, Rogers thus rediscovers the art of "Socratic dialogue" in which questions, feedback in the form of replicas, reflections of the meaning of what a client create a unique environment for a deeper understanding of their situation and expands the prospects for solutions.

Very close in spirit to the approaches of Gestalt therapy, and existential psychotherapy. A common conceptual parameters for these traditions of psychological help are:

- focus on the feelings of the client (as opposed to explanations);

- focus on actual present and potential future into account (in contrast to the studies of the past as the cause of this);

- focus on personality and its development (in contrast to the focus on the problem and get rid of it);

- emphasis on the responsibility of the client as the author's own life (as opposed sacrificially-manipulative position);

- focus on professional relations "I – You" (in contrast to the relations "I – It");

- emphasis on the integrity of the experience (in contrast to the emphasis on the discreteness of experience)

- the focus on personal creative resource to the client (as opposed to the emphasis on cognitive resource consultant (therapist)

thus, it is possible in a fundamentally different way to formulate the notion of "aid" - not as a process of getting rid of problems (or solve them), and how enlargement of the customer experience, increase awareness about their opportunities and resources, as well as an understanding psychologist the boundaries of their professional competence, which can be understood as a rejection of the position of acting in favor of the position of interacting.

Literature.

  • Losev A. F. In search of meaning (interviews and recollections) // Losev A. F. the dialectics of Passion. P. 29
  • international conference "Philosophy and psychotherapy", Saint Petersburg, 19-20 March 2011. http://appme.ru/edu/55http://appme.ru/edu/55
  • Rogers, K. R. perspective on psychotherapy. The development of man: Per. s angl./ Common. ed. and Foreword. Isenina E. I. – Moscow: Publishing group "Progress", "Univers", 1994. – 480 C.
  • Romek E. A. Psychotherapy: the birth of a science and a profession. Rostov n/D, 2005. P. 86-98.
  • Shostrom, E., Brammer L. Therapeutic psychology. Foundations of counseling and psychotherapy — M.: Eksmo, 2002. — 624 p.
  • Schultz D., Schultz S. the History of modern psychology.SP, 2002. P. 67-115.
  • Pritz A., Deuflhard. Psychotherapy - the science of subjective // Psychotherapy: a new science of man. M.; Ekaterinburg, 1999. P. 20.
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