At the present time, professionals working in the social sphere, in particular to psychologists, are required not only high level of professionalism and knowledge in the field of communication, knowledge of communication principles. Psychologist's activity is primarily aimed at communication with the man, to study his feelings, emotions, psychological characteristics and traits.
the speech Itself, but also its quality, are the main components of professional activity of the psychologist. A modern psychologist, regardless of specialization, whether a psychologist-researcher or therapist practitioner, or educational psychologist shall possess different types of speech activity, skills and methods of speech testing, be able to skillfully and professionally carry on a conversation. An important aspect that reflects the overall image of a psychologist, is his speech - the correct use of terms, flawless pronunciation of the words, compliance with generally accepted linguistic norms.
Many scientists who seek to know the essence and nature of human speech communication, conducted research in such scientific fields as psychology, linguistics, philosophy, sociology, psycholinguistics and many others. From domestic experts who have studied the problem of speech, text and art of communication, were: M. M. Bakhtin, T. A. Florenskaya, A. A. Leont'ev, E. A. Zaretsky, D. E. Rosenthal, L. A. Vvedenskaya, L. S. Vygotsky, E. B. Starovoytenko, O. Y. Goikhman, T. M. nadeina, Yu. e. Aleshina, I. D. Zarenkov. and many others.
In the international practice outstanding work include:
W. Wundt, John. Miller, N. Chomsky, D. Slobin, D. Bruner, B. Levelto, D. Hymes, L. Bachmann, V. Humboldt and others.
Previously conducted research in the field of voice dialogue professionals such as "man-man", in total, give the critical role communication skills of a professional psychologist. That is, all studies point to the important value of the presence of the abilities of the psychologist, to be able to faithfully, efficiently, competently and objectively articulate their thoughts and constructively engage in dialogue, in the process of implementing their professional activities.
the Term "speech" is used in two values:
It is one of the types of human communication, intended for communication in society, in this definition it is meant as a particular activity, expressed in writing, or sound;
It is the result of, for example, the article, text, message, letter, etc. [Speech communication: a Tutorial // Goikhman O. I ., Nadeina T. M. – M.:2005]
Dialogue (from the Greek. dialogos - talk, talk) is a form of speech, which is based on successive exchange of iconic characters (including pauses, silence, gestures) two or more individuals. Dialogic speech is a conversation, which involves at least two speakers.
a Distinguishing feature of dialogue is the emotional contact the speakers, their impact on each other intonation, tone of voice, gestures, and facial expressions.
the Dialogue is supported by the interviewees with follow-up questions, change the situation and the intentions of the speaker. A focused dialogue on one topic is called a conversation. The participants of the conversation to find out or discuss a particular problem with by using specifically selected questions.
the Dialogue of psychology with personality, skilled care, applies to information class dialogue, as in this case the psychologist acts as a partner for dialogue, receiving some unknown information (the history of human problems).
Carl Gustaf Yung, in his works on analytical psychology and psychotherapy also addresses the Dialogic psychotherapeutic conversation. The author, after a long study of all aspects of psychology, comes to the conclusion that the whole essence of psychotherapy is not as simple and straightforward as it might seem at first. Dialogue or the debate of the two parties is, in a sense, the dialectical method in psychotherapeutic practice. In the publication of Carl Jung's "Analytical psychology and psychotherapy", we can find a formulation of the dialogue between therapist and patient: "Each person is a mental system that when exposed to another person, enters into reciprocal relationship with the other mental system". [Analytical psychology and psychotherapy: a reader, Ed. V. M. Leibin. — SPb.: Peter, 2001]
In T. A. Florensky "Dialogue in practical psychology. The science of the soul" presents the idea that for the psychologist the dialogue is evolving in time process speech utterances in the context of his responses. Here is emphasized the importance of the spiritual component in the dialogue of the psychologist with the patient, and also extremely important is the Dialogic listening, i.e., the ability to "right to listen" the man who gave "friendly samonastroj". That is, to provide psychological assistance and to relieve stress, the psychologist must be seen objectively applying to him, seeing him as "the most important thing, good, healthy start, and a bad miss". [Florenskaya T. A. Dialogue in practical psychology. The science of the soul. //M.: Humanitarian publishing house.center VLADOS,2001]
Another author speaks with the hypothesis that the speech of the psychologist is extremely important as it is the main tool of labor. This E. V. Sharapanovskaya in his article "the Value of speech in the professional activity of psychologist", there raised such fundamental questions as: "given Enough time and attention to learn the language, speeches, rhetoric in the modern Universities, producing psychologists?", "Do modern psychologists to develop their professional it?" "How well can guide the dialogue, the psychologist?", "As far as respected the culture and ethics of speech therapy?", "Can the psychologist to understand and interpret metaphorical speech?" and many others. All these issues are worthy of attention and further development. A special place is given to this quality of speech of the psychologist as its "liveliness". That is, real speech is emotionally painted vivid figurative expressions, epithets, so it helps to disclose dialogical conversation psychologist. [Sharapanovskaya E. V. Value of the speech in the professional activity of the psychologist. Global International Scientific
Analytical Project//[Electronic resource]. - Mode of access: http://gisap.eu/ru/node/1308]
In the process of analysis and generalization of all mentioned above studies, the author of this article concludes that the ability of the psychologist to correctly and efficiently organize the dialogue with the patient, affects the level of professionalism in the provision of psychological services.
psychological support for people turn to time experiencing difficult situations, whether illness, inner experiences, complexes, depression, grief, search for meaning in life or some other mental anguish. The ability of the psychologist to accept and understand man as he is, help him in more detail, how would you look at himself and his problem, is the most important criterion for the provision of professional psychological assistance. Main components of this criterion can be considered as the ability of the psychologist is true, correct, tactfully to build a dialogue with the patient. It is no secret what kind of impression can leave each of us a communication with a psychologist who says illiterate, makes the wrong placement of the emphasis, uses inappropriate phrases and words, allows a coarse expression, and says without stopping, not allowing the man that is called "the word", or rather "two words can not," i.e. does not possess sufficient vocabulary to Express their thoughts. As a result, the patient, there are doubts about the competence of this expert "How he could help me to solve the psychological problem, if he shows such ignorance, and sometimes immorality?". And the patient's rights.
Thus, it is possible to formulate the most important criteria of effective speech dialogue of the psychologist in their professional activities:
the ability to actively listen (to allow the person to vent);
the brevity of the questions and remarks;
the ability to speak understandable (language should be close to the speech of the patient);
the accuracy and appropriateness of the use of words and terms;
possession of a clear articulation;
the ability to control the intonation and tone of voice.
the competence statements;
benevolence and tact in dialogue;
the ability to make emotional contact with the patient.
Certainly, professional development, psychologists must accompany them throughout activities, in particular, special attention should be paid to improving speaking skills, and the ability to build a professional and high-quality dialogue with a person who needed psychological help.