Профессиональное выгорание учителей

👁 29


the Term "Emotional burnout" was introduced by the American psychiatrist H. J. Freudenberger in 1974 for the characteristics of the psychological state of healthy people in intensive and close communication with students, clients, patients in the emotionally intense atmosphere when providing professional assistance. Originally, this term was defined as a state of exhaustion, exhaustion with a feeling of futility. It is primarily teachers, educators, doctors. Their activity is very different, but they all share close contact with people who (from an emotional point of view) difficult to maintain for a long time.

Vladimir Boiko identifies a number of external and internal factors that provoke emotional burnout.


Chronic intense emotional activity.It is associated with intense communication, with the purposeful perception of partners and the impact on them. Professionals working with people who have to constantly reinforce the emotion of different aspects of communication: actively pose and solve problems, closely to perceive, hard to remember and quick to interpret visual, audio and written information, to weigh alternatives and make decisions.

- Destabilizing organization. Its symptoms: fuzzy organization and planning of labour, lack of equipment, poorly designed and unclear information, the presence of "bureaucratic noise" - small details, contradictions, and unrealistic expectations.

- high level of responsibility for the executable functions and operations. Representatives of mass professions usually work in external and internal control. The content of their activities is that constantly it is necessary to enter and stay in the condition of the subject, which is a joint activity. Constantly have to take his energy level. For all those who work with people and honest attitude to their duties, are moral and legal responsibility for the well-being entrusted to students, patients, clients. A high nervous strain. The school teacher for the lessons of dedication and self-control are so significant that by the next working day, mental resources practically is not restored.

- the unfortunate psychological atmosphere of professional activity. Is determined by two main factors — the conflict vertically, the system "Manager-subordinate", and horizontally, in the "colleague-colleague". The nervous atmosphere motivates one to get emotional and others look for ways to save mental resources. Sooner or later, a cautious man with strong nerves will bow to the tactics of emotional burnout is to keep everything and everyone away, not to take everything to heart, to spare my nerves.

- Psychologically difficult contingent, which is dealing with a professional in the field of communication. Teachers and educators is dei with anomalies of nature, the nervous system, and delay mental development. In the course of professional activities almost every day you come across a student who "spoils your nerves" or "bring to a white heat". Unwittingly, the expert begins to preempt similar cases and to resort to saving emotional resources, trying to convince himself with a formula "should not pay attention." Psychological defense mechanism found, but the emotional detachment gradually leads to deformation of the personality of the teacher affects his human and professional qualities.

the internal factors contributing to burnout include:

- the Tendency to emotional rigidity. The formation of the symptoms of "burnout" will be slower in people impulsive, with mobile nervous processes. Increased sensitivity and the sensitivity can completely block the mechanism of psychological protection and will not allow him to develop.

Intensive interiorization (perception and perezhivanie) the circumstances of professional activity. This psychological phenomenon occurs in people with high responsibility for the charged business, the executable role. Often there are cases when a specialist working with people takes everything too emotionally, is given to the case without a remainder. Each stress case study leaves a deep trace in the soul. Destiny, health, well-being of the pupil causes intense complicity and empathy, painful thoughts and insomnia. Professor Reshetov, T. V. Calls it illiterate sympathy — total dissolving in the other, weak borders "I". Gradually, emotional and energy resources are being depleted and need to restore them and to protect, resorting to the different methods of psychological protection. So, some experts after some time change the profile of work and even profession. But a typical resource-saving option — emotional burnout. Teachers after 11-16 years to acquire energy-saving strategy for the execution of professional activities.

it Happens that the alternate periods of intense interiorization and psychological protection. Sometimes the perception of adverse parties diyalnosti escalates, and then one very serious worries of a stressful situation, conflict, error. For example, a teacher who has learned to calmly respond to the manifestations of teenage crisis, suddenly "breaks" in communication with a particular child. It happens that it is necessary to pay special attention to the student and his family, however, unable to take appropriate steps. Emotional burnout turned into indifference and apathy.

Weak motivation of emotional involvement in professional activities. Here there are two aspects. Firstly, a professional in the field of communication does not consider it necessary or somehow not interested to show involvement and empathy with the subject of their activities. The appropriate frame of mind, stimulates not only emotional burnout, but also its extreme forms — indifference, emotional callousness.

second, there are people altruistic emotional impact which does not mean anything, and they don't need it, do not feel her satisfaction. The other thing is that a person with altruistic values. It is important to help and empathize with others. The loss of emotion in communication she is experiencing as an indicator of moral loss, as the loss of humanity.

Moral defects and disorientation of the individual. Maybe the Pro had a moral flaw before was to work with people or acquired in the course of business. Moral defect due to the inability to include interaction with business partners such moral categories as conscience, virtue, integrity, honesty, respect the rights and dignity of another person. Moral disorientation invoked other reasons for the inability to distinguish right from wrong, benefit from harm to another person. However, as in the case of moral defect, and the presence of moral disorientation, the formation of emotional burnout is facilitated. Increases the likelihood of indifference to the subject of activity and apathy to performed duties.

Emotionalist or inability to communicate.

the Inability to Express my feelings in words always associated with anxiety.

Workaholism when this happens, and camouflage any problem work (the cover for his incompetence pace)

People without the resources (social, kinship, love, professional competence, economic stability, purpose, health, etc.)

the Symptoms of emotional burnout is divided into physical, behavioural and psychological.

"Burnout" is very infectious and can spread quickly among employees. Those who are prone to burnout, become cynics, pessimists, and negativists; interacting at work with other people who are under the influence of the same stress, they can quickly transform an entire group in "meeting burnout". It should be noted that emotional burnout — the process is quite tricky, because the person susceptible to this syndrome, are often poorly aware of their own symptoms. He can't see yourself and to understand what is happening. Therefore, he needs support and attention, not confrontation and accusation. Many psychologists believe that "burning" is not inevitable. Rather it should be taken preventative steps that can prevent, reduce, or eliminate its occurrence.

1. Boyko V. V. Energy emotions in communication: a look at ourselves and others. – M., publishing house ‘Filin’, 1996.

2. Ilyin E. P. Emotions and feelings. PETER, St.-Petersburg,2002, p. 221.

3. Milrud, R. P. the development of emotional regulation of behavior of the teacher. Questions of psychology N6. 1987.

Статья выложена в ознакомительных целях. Все права на текст принадлежат ресурсу и/или автору (B17 B17)

Что интересного на портале?