Diagnostics of alcoholism and drunkenness
One of the tasks of professional psychological selection is the identification and screening of candidates, prone to alcohol abuse. Employers and managers need to understand that alcoholism is a permanent, progressive and irreversible disease: hope on what man "can cure himself" without the aid of psychiatrists, are often untenable.
a simple and effective diagnostic tools to identify patient candidates risk factors for deviant (deviant) behavior and alcoholism in particular, is the analysis of personality profiles of the examinee obtained through the Minnesota multi-factor personal questionnaire (MMPI, MMPI-2) and adapted in Russia options (SMIL, MEL, MLE).
long-term studies of personality profiles of alcoholics and prealcoholic on the one hand, and people without alcohol dependence on the other, showed that their personal characteristics have significant differences. Alcoholics experience as an irresistible physical craving for alcohol, and have special features that create a psychological addiction to alcohol. While psychological dependence and physical dependence on alcohol are separate and not necessarily related phenomena.
Studies V. Nerviano and gross (1980,1983) and K. Jensen (1988) has allowed to identify the main personality profiles on the MMPI that are associated with alcohol or predlagali personality type. The diagnosis of these personality types is quite possible to produce in the professional selection procedures and diagnostics for the analysis of MMPI profiles c identification of a characteristic "signature" two-, three - and chetyrehpolozyj profiles.
Fixed prototypes of alcoholic and prealcoholic personalities.
valid values to improve the performance of MMPI scales for alcoholic individuals is the threshold of 75 T-points. For profiling prealcoholic personality important can be described below mnogovekovoe profile configuration with the values of indicators below threshold psychopathological levels – at the level of explicit accentuation of personality with psychopathological manifestations 70-74 T-points, or the hidden accentuation 65-69 T-points. In some cases, (low profile), consider the common configuration profile even when the values of the concerned scales in the range of characterological peculiarities 55-64 T-points.
the Person is subjectively experiencing severe distress code MMPI 278.
This alcohol is characterized by a prototype personality profile MMPI with an increase on scales 2 (depression), 7 (psychasthenia) and 8 (schizophrenia). Men with this profile show a high degree of subjective distress and psychosocial disability. They tend to experience depressive reduction of the energy potential, severe symptoms of stress with ambivalence emotions and poor emotional attachment.
Passive-aggressive sociopath – code MMPI 42
This prototype has a primary violation of the individual, which leads to alcoholism. Such sociopaths are usually vicious and aggressive personalities rebelling against any restrictions that neglect the social norms and rules, not caring about the consequences. They lack sympathy and empathy, they are poorly integrated into society and demonstrate unpredictable and impulsive behavior. They are characterized by a combination of the peak profile MMPI scale 4 (psychopathic deviation) increase on scale 2 (depression).
anti-social sociopath – code MMPI 49
anti-social psychopaths are characterized by dupikov profile and rising to the 4th scale (psychopathic deviation) and the 9th scale (hypomania) of the MMPI. This prototype is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and immature behavior, emotional callousness that expressed needs of enjoyment and well-developed qualities of a manipulator and exploiter. These people can be dishonest, dishonest, aggressive. People with this profile MMPI often experience dissatisfaction and enter conflicts with authoritarian figures, if they are somewhat limited. They tend to have better social history than a passive-aggressive sociopaths.
Acute depressive reaction code MMPI 24
The alcoholic and the prototype is characterized by a main peak at scale 2 (depression), combined with moderate elevation on scale 4 (psychopathic deviation). Men with that profile can have trouble controlling impulsive behavior is to experience pronounced feelings of guilt about alcohol consumption and other forms of misconduct, which leads to the formation of pathological cycles "wine-alcohol-wine-alcohol." They are distinguished for their self-destructive tendencies often combine alcohol with drugs. Long-term prognosis in this group is negative.
Heavy psychophysiological neurotic reaction codes MMPI 123 1234
People with this personality pattern have a severe neurotic physiological reactions underlying anxiety and depression. They are concerned about their physical health, characterized by high demands on others, disparity, emotionally dependent. They were characterized by high rises is MMPI scales 1 (hypochondriasis) , 2 (depression), 3 (hysteria) I. 4 (psychopathic deviation), or only scales 1, 2 and 3. People with this profile tend to be heavy alcoholics.
Dysphoria mixed – code MMPI 247
This alcoholic prototype is characterized by peaks on scales 2 (depression), 4 (psychopathic deviation) and 7 (psychasthenia). Men with this profile are very passive-aggressive personality, severe anxiety reactions, fearful anxiety, severe stress, irritability and anxiety, phobic and panic reactions, Intrusive thoughts.
Paranoid alienation – code MMPI 824 and code 86
the People of this alcoholic prototype, as a rule, are characterized by the immaturity of the personality, expressed hostility and suspicion. Most often these are people from the "lower social strata", suffering from severe alcoholism and has a low level of intellectual development. They have a high degree of readiness aggressive and very often attacks in a state of alcoholic intoxication. This group was characterized by two distinct MMPI profile. The first configuration profile does not have peaks on scale 8 (schizophrenia), scale 2 (depression) and scale 4 (psychopathic deviation). The second type of personal profile has dvuhvekovoy configuration scale 8 (schizophrenia) and scale 6 (paranoia).
Borderline personality disorder – code MMPI 8724
this type includes people who experience severe distress due to current life circumstances. Usually they drink to relax and relieve the state of socio-psychological maladjustment. They are more anxiety, and less depression, though may periodically experience periods of dysphoria. They can be passive-aggressive and show a clear aggression when other people do not satisfy their needs. They can be manipulators, but often they lack confidence, including in sexual relations. They are suspicious of others and blame others for their problems.
Alcoholic person with a normal personality profile.
unfortunately, the part of the alcohol and prealcoholic individuals cannot be identified through diagnostic screening. These people mostly show a normal profile, although the part may be a tendency to antisocial behavior. In General, people of this type do not consider their addiction to alcohol a serious problem.
- Nerviano, V. J., & Gross, H. W. (1983). Personality types of alcoholics on objective inventories: A review. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 44, 837-851.
- Nerviano, V. J., McCarty, D., & McCarty, S. M. (1980). MMPI profile patterns of men alcoholics in two contrasting settings. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 41, 1143-1153.
- K. Jensen (1988).Alcoholic personality types as identified by MMPI and MCMI profiles. Iowa State University Capstones, Theses and Dissertations.