Psychology is considered to be the oldest of Sciences. Originally though the motives of human behavior and actions considered in the context of philosophical doctrines.
to better understand what was the psychology of antiquity, and who can be called the first psychologists in the history of mankind, imagine the allusion to the psychological consultation in ancient times, in which great minds will conduct business according to their ideas about the soul and the psyche.
I say, that is only a fantasy, however, is not without real reason, because the philosophers of those years actively talked to people, studied their problems and opinions and shared wisdom.
now, fast forward to ancient Greece and the first visit of Democritus. To obtain the wise counsel of this great thinker would have to stand in a big queue. Democritus was a famous person of his time.
the top psychologists, he came in through the creation of the only integrated psychological theory, which was first analyzed all important for psychology questions about the soul, knowledge, free will and behavior regulation.
For example, Democritus believed that the soul, like the body is composed of atoms, and gives motion to the inert body. After death the body can no longer serve as a wrapper for these atoms, and the soul dissipates into the air, but because it too is mortal.
in this senses the atoms of the soul are very close to the surface and can interfere with the microscopic, not visible to the eye copies of the surrounding objects (adaami), which are worn in the air, falling in the senses, thus creating the feeling.
Therefore, referring to Democritus, for example, with depression or neurosis, it is likely it would be to hear the answer that Adali was not in the senses, and in other parts of the body. Therefore, our perception of wrong and cause illusions and errors.
no matter How naive did not seem to modern man, such an understanding of the psyche, however, the theory of Democritus explained at the level of science of that time almost all phenomena of perception, which says modern psychology.
If Democritus people followed this wise advice, then the Hippocrates mainly with the physical pain. Long arguments about the nature of things he preferred action, and was a staunch practitioner.
Sphere of the soul, according to Hippocrates, was inseparable from physiological processes, but because he treated her too.
That Hippocrates developed the doctrine of the temperaments based on a combination of four types of body fluids - blood, mucus, black bile and yellow bile. As I thought a scientist “is the nature of the body and through them it hurts, and is healthy”.
an Important point in his theory was the concept of “action”, which he considered the leading empirical medicine, hence its “do no harm” - the promise through the centuries the doctors of all times and peoples.
A great merit of Hippocrates as a psychologist, that he first spoke about individual differences of human behavior, on differential psychology.
a Fundamentally new approach to the understanding of the human psyche suggested by Socrates. Although it is unlikely to be able to conduct individual counseling and deal with the problems of individual people, the scale of it wrong. Because from the beginning he was a cult figure of his time, collecting full of amphitheaters, teaching the basics of reason and morality. The success of his views cannot be understood in isolation from his person. About the unusually strong influence of Socrates on others mean that literally all memory of him.
And in the ranks of the first psychologists Socrates can rightly be attributed for the fact that he had a research interest with the environment on the person, proclaiming his famous dictum "Know thyself”.
Socrates was one of the first in psychology applied to speech, claiming that the truth is recorded in General terms, in words and in this form passed on from generation to generation.
So he first tied the thought process with the word. And laid the foundations for a new understanding of the soul and of knowledge, where the soul is no longer a material substance that causes the body to activity and the mind and human morality.
Plato, student of Socrates, he probably was in need of psychological counseling than would be able to do it. His idea about the internal conflict of the soul, according to researchers - a consequence of the tragic events of his own life, has imposed a deep imprint on the views of the philosopher.
After the death of his master he left Athens, having sworn never to enter the city, condemned to death by the prominent scientist (Socrates). 10 years Plato wandered and was even sold into slavery, but escaped and founded near Athens his Academy - a school named hero and the patron Saint of this area of the Academy.
there he was engaged in studying and teaching almost all available at the time of exercise and psychology, in particular.
So, Plato first identified the stages in the learning process, revealing the role of inner speech and the activity of thinking, substantiated the role of memory in the formation of human experience.
the Problem of internal conflict of motives, justified by Plato, later became particularly relevant in psychoanalysis, and his approach to the problem of knowledge is reflected in the position of the rationalists.
Alone in the psychological science of that time is Aristotle. He was eminently a theoretician of psychology. His work “On the soul” is considered the first psychological monograph. This book not only summarized all that was done by the predecessors of Aristotle, but to built psychological knowledge in the new system opened new perspectives to science, putting the questions that sought to answer many generations of psychologists.
Also, Aristotle, a disciple of Plato, continued teaching. Was the teacher of Alexander the great, built his own school calling it Likey (Lyceum). This school, like Plato's Academy existed for almost six centuries.
And now a question for those who read this post till the end. If hypothetically imagine the possibility of time travel, which one of the first psychologists would like to talk to you?