the

the Main functions of an assisting adult, as a figure of attachment is to provide protection and to modulate anxiety. Need for protecting the shapes of the attachment is stored in a human life. If we assume that the trauma is refuted by the first working model of secure attachment, according to which the individual perceives oneself as valuable and competent, and their loved ones as emotionally available and supportive, it means that this model should be restored taking into account the received experience. It is encouraging that modern theoretical studies of the psychological science proves that after suffering a trauma, restoration of reliable affection and relationship trust at the protection possible. Special neurobiological studies of protective factors and resilience-forshung for development, showed that a positive experience of attachment can be acquired throughout life, and this experience is presented and neuropsychological imprinted in the physiology of the brain. It was found that quite a high percentage of children growing up in conditions of constant risk, become relatively healthy adults (10-30%). E. Werner and R. Smith called these children "vulnerable but invincible" (vulnerable but invincible) (Werner & Smith, 1992). In English literature refers to "resilience" – the ability not to give up despite the pressure of difficult circumstances (Rutter, 1992; Dornes, 1998; Werner & Smith, 1992), coinciding with the factors:

  • long-lasting positive relationships with one person;
  • positive mother (a"good mother", in D. Winnicott as able to establish good attachment, which is understandable and ready for action);
  • good replacement in case of loss of the mother;
  • big family, is able to compensate for the deficiencies of the parent family;

as for the experience of secure attachment, it is due to empathy and intuitive understanding on the part of the persons responsible for the child and, through adequate response to the child. For example: if the baby is hungry, need to feed him, not to play. And also thanks to the reliable presence of: the child can rely on an adult when you need to – adult always there, he reliably do that. This experience is probably the most significant resources of the person. Experience shows that the child has a protecting factor in mental development, a secure attachment in which the child is confident. In order for the child later might be appropriate and subsequently adequately to something worked. It is important that the protective factor was effective. We often see adults who are not sure what they do on something you can influence. And this is an important social skill – the confidence that I influential. Children with a reliable degree of attachment, thus, social and cognitive well-developed. On the basis of secure attachment and role flexibility, they can well be distinguished (to say no), transfer failures and transfer times when they fail – and this is an important social skill, the so-called tolerance to frustration.

the Need for affection is a basic human need. In the theory of attachment Bowlby, the need for affection as a basic human need throughout life, runs parallel with the development of autonomy. The need for autonomy of its complements. Uncertainly attached child is separated from his parents. Confidence attachment occurs when people can rely on each other.

the younger the child, the more clearly he is exposed to influences from their environment or related entities. a child's Development occurs in the interaction with the immediate environment. Disorders in development arise from unresolved experiences that come from the environment of the child and with whom the child can not handle. The spiritual world of the child, the mental space is violated by these influences coming from the outside. These are often traumatic, disturbances come from the environment of the child. So for us, a necessary part of the job is to work with the environment.

As pointed out by a famous neuropsychologist and psychotherapist Herald Hutter: the most important factor in the attachment system – that's love, meeting with a person, a people, worthy of love and giving it. The fear disappears, if people can learn to understand and love that surrounds them.

In the context of prevention of ill-treatment against children and adolescents, a secure attachment can be seen as a resource, and unreliable - as the deficit obtained at an early age, which requires replenishment. Thus the special role is played by the involvement in social support and individual services for children, their families and entourage objects of attachment both primary and secondary, and support them and "doing".

We live in a time of change and diversity, information overload. Often in this setting, children feel alone, no protection, no one is in life, and parents are experiencing congestion, the isolation and lack of roots. The child, in its changing conditions of life, should receive in the family and in society the support that he needs, he needs to feel secure, he needs to be led, to have been the model on which he could navigate. It is important in psychotherapy to create opportunities in which the younger child in his world, could "secede" from their parents, while maintaining a credible relationship with yourself and the environment.

2013-01-03
Статья выложена в ознакомительных целях. Все права на текст принадлежат ресурсу и/или автору (B17 B17)

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