Теоретико-методологические основания экзистенциальной психотерапии Джеймса Бьюдженталя

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a Bright representative of existential psychotherapy in the United States can call James Bugental. Like his compatriot, I. Yalom, J. Bugental tried to combine the ideas of depth, humanistic and existential psychology, and eventually founded a line, which he called DisneySea psychotherapy.

To George. Bugental "concept "personality" is an abstraction, perceptual and conceptual object" [D. Bugental, 1998, 318]. Personality is not what it is man, and the total result of his life and activities. Personality in the understanding of George. Bugental, therefore, acts as the product life of J. moreover, he believes that "the personality analysis also futile, as any medical event in relation to the dead" [D. Bugental, 1998, 318].

the principal scope of DisneySea therapy is the subjectivity of the patient, that is his subjective experiences. So "...subjectivity is the other side that needs to build a bridge of relationship to others and to the world" [D. Bugental, 2015, 16]. DisneySea therapy is built on how to expand and deepen the subjectivity of the patient. Often this subjectivity is very limited, then it may be a question of semiobjective, loss of inspiration and inner guidance. According to George. Bugental an important role in this process is the society that the question of how they should live their lives, first and foremost, teach children to follow the advice and requirements of the senior, not the internal feeling. Therefore, people acquire beliefs about themselves, the world and ways of being in it. Often these views are naive and immature because they do not take into account the internal subjective reality. Therapy, in fact, is a process in which the patient turns to his subjectivity, learning to hear the inner voice that eventually leads to maturing and Mature, more authentic way of life. Experiencing his subjectivity, the patient begins to feel more free and have choices where before he was going through internally. The concept of subjectivity in DisneySea therapy is directly related to the authenticity, and thus to the fulfillment of life.

To achieve greater breadth and depth of the subjectivity of the patient helps the therapist's main tool is his own personality (or rather I). John. Bugental there are 13 parameters of the psychotherapeutic skills that contribute to the achievement of the goals of psychotherapy [D. Bugental, 2015]

  • the level of communication;
  • the therapist's presence and Alliance;
  • interpersonal pressure;
  • theme parallelomania;
  • parallelomania feelings;
  • parallelomania framework;
  • parallelomania locus;
  • correlation of objective and subjective;
  • the basic approach to resistance;
  • care;
  • intentionality;
  • the obligation of the psychotherapist;
  • artistry of the therapist.

the level of communication it is important to understand what level should be communication in the process of psychotherapy. Five levels of communication: formal communication, maintaining contact, standard discussion, the critical circumstances and intimacy is a big part of meaningful work in psychotherapy has to occur on the penultimate and in the rare moments in later levels. These levels are characterized by a high involvement of the patient's openness to conversation and his sincere desire to Express their inner feelings.

the presence of the therapist plays a key role and must conform to the level of the presence of the patient.

an Important aspect of DisneySea therapy becomes to achieve a greater depth of psychotherapeutic Alliance in which the therapist strives to keep the patient at a greater depth. This can occur due to the transfer of patient responsibility for the course of the conversation; indicate that a patient demonstrates, but is not recognized; penetration and deepening in subjectivity.

Setting interpersonal pressure reflects the degree to which the therapist tries to influence the client in the moment. Four possible types of pressure are: listening, leadership, instruction and requirement.

Theme parallelomania, parallelomania feelings, frames and locus of parameters of skill of the therapist, reflecting his ability to feel a different dimension to the conversation with the patient and to choose for the development of the conversation those who would deepen in the subjective experience of the patient and their disclosure.

the Ratio of subjective and objective manifests itself in the forms of presentation and examination of the patient life issues. Whether he is inclined to objectify himself or manifests his subjectivity? Subjective forms could include, for example, spontaneous associations and the search led care. For the latter is characterized by three conditions: a)the patient needs to highlight the issue that wants to explore and to describe in detail to his therapist; b) when describing the patient should be immersed so deeply in your inner process as possible; C) the patient must be ready to face new and previously unknown. With all this noted, it is impossible to determine with accuracy exactly how a person becomes subjective [D. Bugental, 2015].

One of the Central themes in DisneySea therapy is to work with the resistance of the patient. John. Bugental recognizes that a great influence on the formation of his ideas about resistance had psychoanalytic tradition, however, many of the provisions related with resistance are considered key existential psychotherapy. Important is the understanding of the nature and forms of resistance. Thus, the resistance can be understood as a conscious unwillingness of the patient to cooperate with the therapist or his disagreement with the ideas or point of view of the therapist. "Resistance is impulsive action aimed at protecting the identity of the usual and familiar world from what is perceived as a threat" [D. Bugental, 2015, 181]. Active resistance is felt as something away from the true subjectivity that prevents the openness and expressiveness of the patient. The most significant in the psychotherapeutic work is a form of resistance that is present in a patient's life as a life pattern. Such patterns can emerge in some complex, limiting the concept of "I-and-World" of the patient.

In the process of therapy, the patient meets with his resistance begins to discern, to see the alternatives, understand its function and purpose. Ultimately, resistance is not negative, rather it represents a protective mechanism aimed at the preservation of existing human constructs of themselves and the world. The problem arises when the actual life experience of the patient contrary to his constructs. In this case, a new experience is suppressed and the patient cannot come to a more authentic way of life. Gradually, as you become more familiar with their resistance, the patient is faced with a situation when existing constructs are clarified, and the resistance diminishes (becomes more manageable). If actual experience is significantly contrary to existing patient constructs, it may be an existential crisis. Such a crisis may not be painful because it goes directly on the patient's life. Aggravated and development of the crisis may occur or extinction is no longer relevant constructs and replace them with more authentic, or regress to earlier stages of the process of therapy.

DisneySea psychotherapy is a difficult and long event, but because the patient clearly needs to feel some need and motivation to continue therapy and make changes in your life. The need and motivation is a "concern" is "the name for the complex of feelings and attitudes a person to think seriously about their lives and how the course she took" [D. Bugental, 2015, 209]. As components care of the patient can distinguish the pain, the hope, the commitment and internal orientation. According to George. Budgets that is of concern is a "source of energy and the lighthouse to know where to go" [D. Bugental, 2015, from 223]. Because the therapist must pay close attention to how the patient feels all four components of the care.

as a result of working with the resistance and maintaining the feeling of all the elements of care, the process of therapy goes to a new level of depth. At this level we are talking about the subjective experience of one's lifetime with the patient. This subjective experience leads away from the view of yourself as an object. In his subjectivity, man is the existence, process, action thinking, not the result. Each person has some unique set of directions in which takes place its process of existence. The choice of these areas and expand them in your life is an intentionality that is simultaneously oriented and the ability to translate inner impulses into life. It is the intentionality of consciousness allows a person to cope (i.e. to find his own subjective answer) with the realities of being-in-the-world. J. Bugental identifies five such conditions: rootedness, a limb, the ability to act or not to act, a choice, separateness-connectedness [D. Bugental, 2015]. Each datum represents a dilemma that cannot be resolved in an objective manner, and only requires a subjective response of a person. The answer, from the point of view DisneySea psychotherapy, leads to what can be considered authentic life.


  1. Bugental D. Art therapist. - M.: Publishing House Of The Corvette, 2015. 320 p.
  2. Bugental D. Science to be alive: dialogues between therapist and patients in humanistic therapy. - M: Independent firm "Class", 1998. 336.
Kislyuk Maxim
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