the Theme of distortion and falsification of data started at previous issue, caused excitement in the auditorium )). Your reviews confirm that the techniques we have talked about, are alive and well in dozens of presentations – well, now we are ready to meet with them.
Today, as planned, will continue to "announce the entire list of" clever ways of distorting the objective reality given us in sensation, to feel like pawns in someone else's informational games ).
- Games with source data.
If the curve is not enough or too crooked, too jagged, etc. to impress the audience properly, some speakers try to disguise the "ugly places" playing
with the sample data provided. How this is done:
3.1. The choice of the plot scale.
When the graph grows sluggish, it "adjust" the cutting off or adding the "right" sections of the vertical axis. So, if your income has increased from 16 to 21 something, you can proskurova the vertical axis from zero to 25, and can restrict the area from 16 to 22 – not all remember that the coordinate axis should begin with zero. And then in the second case the line will vigorously cover the entire slide, from top to bottom vigorous stroke, which certainly looks very impressive.
If the schedule needs to "calm down" - is a reverse manipulation: the vertical axis is added divisions, and unwanted growth on the back of a big field is almost imperceptible. After all, if the same interval of 16-21 to be seen against the scale of 0-100, the curve seems almost flat.
Frequent tricks and horizontal-axle, usually denoting time. If the period is not impressive results, but before even worse happened – you can add to the previous slide indicators of "bad years". Then the overall schedule will show that now compared to "then" – all very good ).
3.2. The selection of the "step" of the scale.
heterogeneous data can always find the "right" tactics of their public display. For example, show up on the chart results, only the even years and some of the most unfavorable failures will disappear. And if you take every fifth year – you can hide anything at all.
for example, Try to draw a graph of the "Square of the European territories of the USSR, in square kilometers" with divisions 1935, 1940, 1945 – will be a steadily rising curve. And what was there in 1941-43 – even imperceptibly.
Another way to "soften" the line – cut into finer time intervals: take, for example, losses are not annual, and monthly – the curve of the graph would be approximately twelve times lower, instead of a million spectators will see hundreds of thousands and will feel calmer )
3.3. Demonstration of the trend.
the Most radical option here (if the differences between the initial and final result satisfied the narrator) – to show only the extreme points connected with one line and say, without going into details that "the General trend we are happy". Well, something that should have grown, what we need is fell. But different details, as it's evolved in the time you need it?
Especially impressive growth when you combine the worst of past performance with the best of current – for example, "the sale of our ice cream per month." You can compare the data in January 2012 and July 2017 and months to remember to specify. Accidentally. Of course, if the seasonal nature of the product there – can ask, and if not, may believe.
- Masking on the slide.
If you suddenly turned so that the forger is unable (or too lazy) to "operate" data – too early to relax. There are more car visual tricks to mislead us. Especially easy to hide such tricks in the "complex" intricate slides with excess of various data, we have recently talked. Consequently, when we present a "new Babylon" with a mountain of diverse data "in one bottle", it makes sense to be wary – and not whether the authors are trying to do something on this slide as seamlessly as possible?
4.1. "Retouching" of the graph.
Even if you limit the maximum experts in "dust effects" on the rules of procedure, time, threats, or appeals to the moral foundations – they are still able to influence the perception of not very pleasant for myself charting some subtle actions:
- the growth phases (if you want to emphasize growth) to do more than "fat";
- the "score" space graphics auxiliary lines (abscissa and ordinate for each key point, for example);
- probably something else ))
4.2. The use of decorative elements.
As it is already generally accepted that the presentation in our time – not only a source of information, but, in varying degrees, a work of art. People are intellectually lazy, have difficulty accepting the bare facts, bad boring numbers – emotionally and beautifully give them that was interesting. For the talented arm is just expanse. Probably not list all of the ways "decorating reality", to name but a few.
for Example, instead of numbers and line graphs use circles, squares, paintings depicting the subject of counting. Even with fair proportions they are harder to compare than numbers or bars diagrams. Can you quickly say how much more circle 1 circle 4? Mug and 16? Well, about the proportions that we talked last time.
Often schedule who lacks the self-energy of growth, the top decorated with bright cheerful thick arrow pointing up slightly steeper than the real line. Seemingly simple trick – but it works, the figure looks more attractive.
When someone like that we only looked at the "necessary" lines, ribbons and bars on the slide and didn't pay attention to other figures (even if they are there), then paint them in more vivid color, and sometimes even makes a little more than others. For example, in the figure of the "Last count" we see the combination of two techniques: gap chart and bright spots.
it Seems that owners of the second position in the ranking really wanted to look more impressive: the gap chart visually have almost eliminated their huge gap with the leaders, and the highlighting in red of the Levada center (a clear advantage over third place 14 - 6) has diverted attention from the background green of the results of polls (only 6 -5), and the nondescript gray data FOM (actually losing 10 – 11!). You, too, at first did not pay attention to it? ))
by the Way, to smooth out the difference without gap charts – enough visually lengthen the ribbon or the columns names in the rectangles of the same color – as if just for beauty. This is not a direct and the hidden proportions, but works better than direct. Remember the figure from last issue. Compare first and second rows of the chart. Very honestly less ribbon 1 ribbon 2 5-6 times, respectively, the figures. However, the long rectangles of almost the same color with the signatures visually so reduce this difference, that seems to be the first digit of the second is not less than 5-6 times and a quarter. Voila!
Well, suddenly I was once again out of modern brief online format. And what to do – the theme of rich, will have to continue it the next time. In the meantime – homework. Draw one illustration to each of the above today, to better remember them "in person" when you have to meet. If you find a new interesting technique of falsification – share catch, show all ).
I, before to say goodbye, once again thank shipunova, Sergey, head of the Moscow University rhetoric over the illustration to the article.
As usual, I will be glad to help small tips vain and big – money, Skype or in person. I welcome your questions, thoughts, comments. Write on e-mail vsl7 on mail.ru. Prior to the meeting.
True to You words and correct decisions!
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