mental retardation (ANW) is the lag in the development of one or more mental functions (memory, thinking, volitional and other) with respect to age. Before put such a diagnosis, now it is rather a pedagogical term used to characterize a mental retardation child. The doctors (neurologists and psychiatrists) can put such children with various diagnosis (chronic brain syndrome, hyperdynamic syndrome, syndrome of psychic infantilism, cerebroasthenic syndrome, and other from section F 80-89 ICD-10).
At an early age often confuse the symptoms of CRA and mental retardation, which, although it has similar symptoms, especially mild, but differs from CRA organic nature of origin, the more pronounced the underdevelopment and the unsatisfactory result of the correction.
What are the main causes of mental retardation?
* genetic predisposition (relatives of previous generations, too, developed with some lag to age);
* moved at an early age, severe illness, injury, surgery, which gave a complication in the developing nervous system of the child;
* the pathology of pregnancy and childbirth (most common cause): infection, intoxication, hypoxia during pregnancy, prematurity, asphyxia during birth, birth trauma;
* unfavorable family environment (frequent quarrels, scandals, education, constant stress, etc.);
* emotional and sensory deprivation (lack of development, lack of attention, love, warmth and affection, as in orphanages, and in some families, unfortunately).
What to do if parents notice that their child is significantly behind from their peers (later went, went, talking, emotionally cold, does not remember the names of objects, cannot focus on an object)?
you first need to examine the child in the pediatric neurologist, to exclude organic brain disease requiring immediate treatment. In fact, the earlier treatment is started the better the result will be. In parallel with this, you need to apply for a consultation with a child psychologist to get advice on development of those features, which revealed the gap.
4 years need to start neuropsychological correction, aimed at the formation of new neural networks in the brain, the strengthening of hemispheric cooperation, the development of those parts of the brain responsible for certain mental functions. The greater the lag to age, the more you want to do with the neuropsychologist.
generally, if the parents fulfil all the recommendations of doctors and psychologists, the underdevelopment becomes smaller, and to be of school age (or younger school age) the child "catches up" to their peers and can along with them to learn the curriculum of public schools.
the Article was first published on the website of the Psychological Studio "GROWTH" Saint-Petersburg: https://www.psyrost.spb.ru/single-post/U-rebyonka-ZPR
© Elena and Alexander, Bazanchuk, psychologists-psychotherapists, neuropsychologists, family and personal psychologists for adults and children, Psychological Studio "GROWTH" Saint-Petersburg